Tuesday, 5 June 2012

Week 8 -internet

This week is our last class for this subject. In the class we had learnt about internet. Internet now become part of my life in UTM since every assignment need we search the information in the internet. In other words internet most important needs in the university after food, clothes and hostel…hahaha.. XD

What is internet??

For your information, internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies.

IP address

                Do you know what IP address is? It is a numerical label assigned to each device participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. Each computer and other devices have their own IP address. IP address is divided into two parts:

1)      one identifying the network
2)      one identifying the node or host

The Class of the address determines which part belongs to the network address and which part belongs to the node address.

Internet service provider (ISP)

                ISP is an organization that provides access to the Internet. Access ISPs directly connect clients to the Internet using copper wires, wireless or fiber-optic connections. Hosting ISPs lease server space for smaller businesses and other people (colocation). Transit ISPs provide large amounts of bandwidth for connecting hosting ISPs to access ISPs.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

                HTTP is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. It is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. In the other word HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext.

Ok that’s all. I hope you got what I want to tell you…
Have a nice day...


Sunday, 13 May 2012

week 7 :)

wireless enable people to connect networking using wireless connection across long distances. there are also infrared and radio frequency, but they are limited to area that is short-ranged. wireless are often defined as electronic waves, radio waves, and infrared.

in data networking, the type of wireless network are plenty. here are the list of them:

1) Infrared

infrared will always be associated with Infrared light. remember when we used to put our phones and friend's phones together in order to transfer pictures? that is the concept of Infrared. Infrared can only be used in a short-distance range and the transfer speed is 2400 Mbps to 4 Mbps. 

2) Bluetooth

bluetooth is also designed for a very short range which is less than 10 metres. it is used to connect and change information between devices such as computers and cellular phones. the data speed is around 3 Mbps. it also has a frequency of 2.4 GHz.

3) Broadband

Broadband is a type of wireless network that is very widely used nowadays as the speed of transmission is fast. it can be connected within 50 km of range from the transmitter. it is planned to used for many years as it is very popular among user and is considered reliable. 

Week 6 - Unbounded Media/Wireless Transmission Media

What is Wireless?

Wireless is a type of network but without cable. there are several devices that we can use to transport information via wireless and this devices are called unbounded media or transmission media. It is a very useful media as it enables user to conveniently connect to the Internet anytime they want to as long as there are connection. therefore, we will move on to the type of media that it unbounded. 

1) Satellite

satellite is one form of wireless device. in satellite, there are receiver and transmitter. satellite is also known as the strongest type of wireless media as it transmit information faster than any other wireless media. 
UPLINK : transmisson from Earth so satellite
DOWNLINK : transmission from satellite to Earth

2) Cellular phones

Another type of wireless media is cellular telephone which is commonly used in our society nowadays. it actually works by transmitting radio waves that can be used in longer distances. normally, if we want to connect to the Internet using Wireless connection, we have to be closer to the transmitter in order to get better connection. 

3) Antenna

There are two types of antenna. they are :
a) Parabolic dish
- it is normally placed on high places in order to transmit waves better.

b) Horn antenna
- it is used to receive and transmit waves. 
- the horn is designed specifically for minimise any disruption of unwanted signals. 

4) Broadcast radio
- can be used in farther distance
- transmission of waves require transmitter and receiver
- negative points : Slower

1G, 2G, 3G, 4G

Sunday, 29 April 2012

Week 5 - Cabling

Ok its already our fifth lecture. There are so many things that I learnt before. Today we learnt new thing that is cabling.


What is cabling??

Cable is the device that information usually moves from one network to the other network.

There are 4 types of cable that we had learnt:

UTP cable (unshielded twisted pair)

consists of two unshielded wires twisted around each other
low cost
used extensively for local-area networks (LANs) and telephone connections

STP cable (shielded twisted pair)

each of the two copper wires that are twisted together are coated with an insulating coating that functions as a ground for the wires
extra covering in shielded twisted pair wiring protects the transmission line from electromagnetic interference
often is used in Ethernet networks

Co – axial cable

type of wire that consists of a center wire surrounded by insulation and then a grounded shield of braided wire
shield minimizes electrical and radio frequency interference.
used by the cable television industry and is also widely used for computer networks, such as Ethernet
much less susceptible to interference and can carry much more data

Fibre optic cable

consists of a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of transmitting messages modulated onto light waves
have a much greater bandwidth than metal cables
less susceptible than metal cables to interference
much thinner and lighter than metal wires

ok thats all for this week..
see you in next post..

Week 4 - Topology, Protocol & Architecture

Today is our 4th lesson. In this class we started learning about topology and others element of network.

What is topology??

Network topology is the study of arrangement of the nodes of networks.

Physical topology is the way that the devices on a network are arranged and how they communicate with each other.

Logical topology is the way that the data passes through the network from one device to the next devices.


Linear bus topology 

All devices are connected to a central cable, called the bus
relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks
System that uses linear bus topology is Ethernet.

Ring topology

All devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop.
Relatively expensive and difficult to install.
Offer high bandwidth and can span large distances.

Star topology

All devices are connected to a central hub.
easy to install and manage
Disadvantage - bottlenecks can occur because all data must pass through the hub.

Tree topology

combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies
consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable


Protocol is set of rules that govern communication between the computers in network.

Example of protocols:


use the linear bus topology
supports data transfer rates of 10 Mbps
uses the CSMA/CD access method to handle simultaneous demands

Token ring

use token passing as access method

Local talk

develop by Macintosh computers
popular because they are easy and inexpensive to install and maintain


is Fiber Distributed Data Interface
•      support data rates of up to 100 Mbps
used as backbones for wide-area networks.


Have two categories:

Peer to peer architecture

each workstation has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities
disadvantage - usually do not offer the same performance under heavy loads.

Client server architecture

also known as two-tier architectures
Servers are powerful computers or processes dedicated to managing file servers, print servers, or
        network server


Asynchronous Transfer Mode
network technology based on transferring data in cells or packets of a fixed size
small, constant cell size allows ATM equipment to transmit data over the same network
assure that no single type of data hogs the line

Thursday, 22 March 2012

Week 3 - Networking

Ehem2, Assalamualaikum & wassup everyone!!!

In my latest class, I had learnt that the networking exist from the stone aged already. I was wondering on how people of stone aged practice the networking in their lives. And then Dr Dayang shows us some example.
Then I started to understand how was networking is in the ancient time. It was very difficult to communicate in that time. So they need the networking to help them can communicate between two person that lives so far away.
Gratefully we can communicate easily now with the help of technology of networking. So be thankful to live in this era please…. J
Say hello to NETWORKING!!!!

What is network??? It is the collection of connected intelligent computing devices by cabling that is the basic network.

These are 4 types of networks:
LAN (Local  Area Network) - The computers are connected close together in the same building or room.
WAN (Wide Area Network) - The computers are connected far apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves within the wide area such as within Malaysia or World.
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) – The network that connect computers within the large area such as UTM Skudai but not as wide as WAN.
PAN (Personal Area Network) – The network that connects computers within the range of 10 meters using the wifi routers or broadbands modems. For example streamyx , Celcom Broadband , P1Wimax, etc.


ROUTERS - is a computer networking devices that forwards data packets to their destinations, based on their addresses that is known as IP address.

HUBS – is a networking component which acts as a convergence point of a network, allowing the transfer of data packets.

BRIDGES - is a hardware device used to create a connection between two separate computer networks or to divide one network into two. Usually use the same internet protocol.

GATEWAYS – is a network point that can connect two different networks that use two different protocols.

I found that this week lecture was quite interesting. There are some terms that I never heard before that makes me want to know more about it.
Ok that’s all for this week..
See you soon…………

Friday, 9 March 2012

Week 2 - Data Communication

Assalamualaikum & wassup..

We meet again in my blog.. Well this is my second post. This week we had learnt about DATA COMMUNICATION. Do you know what data communication is??? For me, when I hear the words itself what I had understand from it is the communication that use devices to communicate between at least two person. The devices used in data communication usually the computer and other devices that connect with the internet. First of all, I would like to mentioned about two types of data transmission.

They are:
1)  analog transmission
2)  digital transmission

type of transmission

What is analog transmission?

It's a transmission that uses signal that are exact replicas of a sound wave or image. There are carrier waves whereby the added frequency of electromagnetic current will help to produce a continuous electric wave.

eg: Standard phones, fax machines and modem.

What is digital transmission then?

It is a type of transmission where the signals are converted into a binary digit, which consists of two elements. Where do we usually see digital transmission? Normally, it can be found in the electronic communication.

Next, I would like to talk about bandwidth. BANDWIDTH. I never heard the word before. Bandwidth is the amount of data that can be transferred in a fixed amount of time. There are books that mentioned that bandwidth are defined as the speed of the data transferred. But according to the notes in class, it is about the amount of data, so we stick to that.

The bandwidth are measured by bps (bit per second), Mbps (Megabits per second). It is an advantage to have a higher bandwidth as the data will be transferred faster and efficiently.

Lastly, we will discuss on the directions of data transmission. There are two types:

1) simplex
2) duplex
  - half duplex
  - full duplex


It is a one way communication. Data usually travels in single direction. Eg: door bell. However it is very uncommon to be used in computer communication.


Data can travel in either direction but can only travel in one direction at a time.
eg: USB

That's all for now. I'll see you in my next entry! XD Leave your comment please.. (^_^)